Gardens for poets and scholars (221–618 AD), Tang dynasty (618–907), First Golden Age of the Classical Garden. The park was later destroyed, but its memory would continue to inspire Chinese garden design for centuries. The chrysanthemum was elegized the poet Tao Yuanming, who surrounded his hermit's hut with the flower, and wrote a famous verse: "At the feet of the Eastern fence, I pick a chrysanthemum, During that period, Chinese kings and nobilities began the practice of developing forests and woods for the specific purpose of hunting. [36], Bridges are another common feature of the Chinese garden. It was described in one of the early classics of Chinese literature, the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji). By 495, the city of Luoyang, capital of the Northern Wei dynasty, had over 1,300 temples, mostly in the former residences of believers. [21], Despite the Mongol invasion, the classical Chinese scholar's garden continued to flourish in other parts of China. Sometimes gardeners make mountains from both rocks and dirt. But, as Ji Cheng wrote, it could also be "the immaculate ribbon of a stream, animals, birds, fish, or other natural elements (rain, wind, snow), or something less tangible, such as a moonbeam, a reflection in a lake, morning mist, or the red sky of a sunset." [2] The old character for yuan is a small picture of a garden; it is enclosed in a square which can represent a wall, and has symbols which can represent the plan of a structure, a small square which can represent a pond, and a symbol for a plantation or a pomegranate tree.[3]. 8 Said to be the largest of its kind outside of China at the time, the striking architecture and vibrant colours of the Chinese Garden was intended to contrast with the tranquillity of the Japanese Garden. [71], During the Nara period (710-794), when the Japanese capital was located at Nara, and later at Heian, the Japanese court created large landscape gardens with lakes and pavilions on the Chinese model for aristocrats to promenade and to drift leisurely in small boats, and more intimate gardens for contemplation and religious meditation. They might be revealed through round "moon doors" or through windows of unusual shapes, or windows with elaborate lattices that broke the view into pieces.[52]. The ever-changing moods and appearances of nature in a given landscape in full action are understood by the author as an independent function that becomes an agent for garden making. Sometimes a canal is wide, sometimes narrow. Rocks are chosen based on their shape, texture, substance, color and softness. A pond or lake is the central element of a Chinese garden. Chinese gardens aren’t laid out in a way that you can see the entire garden all at once. wutopia lab has completed ‘the hiding house’ in shanghai with a micro chinese garden formed by black volcanic rock, taihu stones, wisteria and bauhinia trees. A Chinese garden was not meant to be seen all at once; the plan of a classical Chinese garden[26] presented the visitor with a series of perfectly composed and framed glimpses of scenery; a view of a pond, or of a rock, or a grove of bamboo, a blossoming tree, or a view of a distant mountain peak or a pagoda. The Russian Empress Catherine the Great built her own pagoda in the garden of her palace of Tsarskoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, between 1778 and 1786. These generally had three parts; a kiosk with winged gables at the front, a more intimate hall in the center, and a two-story structure with a panoramic view of the pond at the rear. The types of buildings that are included in a Chinese garden have to do with whose garden it is. The shape of the garden pond often hides the edges of the pond from viewers on the other side, giving the illusion that the pond goes on to infinity. Ceremony halls, located near the entrance of the garden, have their own courtyard and are used for family celebrations. (called an xie, fang, or shifang). "[27], Some early Western visitors to the imperial Chinese gardens felt they were chaotic, crowded with buildings in different styles, without any seeming order. The garden is built around a pond, with the Longevity Pavilion on the north side, the Fry Pavilion on the east side, a dramatic rock garden on the south, and the creator's study, the Humble House, to the west. "[45], The creators of the Chinese garden were careful to preserve the natural appearance of the landscape. The Qing dynasty was the last dynasty of China. Some buildings have connected hallways and pavilions, each of which will have a view of a different area of the garden. They chose to pursue the Taoist ideals of disengagement from worldly concerns. His observations on the Chinese garden were cited by the essayist Joseph Addison in an essay in 1712, who used them to attack the English gardeners who, instead of imitating nature, tried to make their gardens in the French style, as far from nature as possible.[82]. For scholars, the pine was the emblem of longevity and tenacity, as well as constance in friendship. In this garden, a series of twenty scenes, like the paintings of a scroll or album, unrolled before the viewer, each illustrated by a verse of poetry. These rocks, of limestone sculpted by erosion, became the most highly prized for gardens. Under the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), a new imperial capital was built at Chang'an, and Emperor Wu built a new imperial garden, which combined the features of botanical and zoological gardens, as well as the traditional hunting grounds. 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